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Những giới từ thường gặp trong kỳ thi IELTS

________________________________________ Những giới từ thường gặp trong kỳ thi IELTS dưới đây được phân loại dựa trên ý nghĩa cùng với ví dụ điển hình. I. Giới từ chỉ thời gian: 1. after after school, after college After many vicissitudes, the Dictionary was finally published on 15 April, 1775. 2. at at night, at noon at sunrise, at the beginning of the 20th century 3. before before Christmas, before the First World War 4. by by the beginning of the century 5. during during the same period, during the summer holidays 6. in in the morning, in recent years, in the winter In accepting this view he was admitting the possibility that he was mistaken earlier. 7. near near death, near the end of the exam 8. on on a sunday afternoon, on the first day of the term on friday night, on the weekends on a hot sunny day, on Christmas Eve on arrival, on demand on receipt, on sight 9. outside outside office hours 10. over over night, over time over the years, over the long term fall asleep over a book, discuss a matter over dinner 11. past past bedtime, past three o'clock Children in developing countries are healthier and more likely to survive past the age of five when their mothers can read and write. 12. pending Pending our move to the new house, we moved to temporary accommodation in London. 13. since Since leaving home, since then 14. throughout Throughout the day, throughout one’s life 15. toward(s) Toward sundown, toward sixty years of age 16. under Under consideration, under construction Under discussion, under way 17. until (till) Until last week Not…until (till) Original science was not done in English until the second half of the 17th century. They did not disappear from the bigger rivers till present times. 18. prior to Prior to carrying out the experiment, Milgram explained his idea to a group of 39 psychiatrists. 19. at the end of At the end of the discussion, at the end of the exam 20. at the point of At the point of leaving, at the point of collapse 21. in the act of I caught him in the act of reading my private letters. 22. in the course of I hope that in the course of the next two or three weeks they’ll make up their minds. 23. in the midst of = the period of time when something is happening or being done In the midst of this humiliating scandal, news of Mr. Hodge’s resignation arrived. 24. in the wake of : used to say what happens after and often as a result of something Many expressionist movements sprang up in the wake of the Second World War. 25. on the eve of = the period of time just before an important event. On the eve of an examination On the eve of a tremendous theoretical and cultural development The students were nervous on the eve of their graduation. II. Giới từ chỉ địa điểm, phương hướng: 1) across Escape across borders, wander across the park. Live across the street, speak from across the room. 2) along Drive along a path, walk along a corridor 3) amid/amidst Amid the ruins, amidst dangers 4) among A house among the trees A small village among the mountains 5) beside A river beside the house, beside the road 6) between A passageway between two rooms, insert between the lines 7) by Linger by the door, sit by the bed 8) down Climb down a tree, go down the hill Walk down the street, swim down the river 9) into Fall into a ditch, pour hot water into a glass 10) inside Inside the mouth, step inside the gate 11) near A building near the railway, stand near the door 12) on A lamp on the desk, a picture on the wall On the campus, on the world market On the outskirts of the city 13) opposite Live opposite the park, sit opposite each other 14) outside Go outside the house 15) throughout Throughout Europe, throughout the country 16) toward(s) A tendency toward cooperation, head toward the bus stop 17) underneath Sit down underneath the tree Write the date underneath the address 18) up Climb up the stairs, run up the steps 19) within Within the reach, within a party Within sight, within hearing 20) ahead of One man went ahead of the others to see if the road was clear. 21) next to Take a piece of chalk out of the box Walk out of the room 23) in front of A van was parked right in front of my car 24) in the face of In the face of great hardship, she managed to keep her sense of humor III. Giới từ chỉ cách thức, phương pháp 1) by She earns her living by selling insurance 2) on On foot, on the radio, on TV, on the telephone 3) through Peace through strength 4) via Via airmail The transmission of television via satellite Interlibrary loans are available locally and nationally via the British Library. 5) with With certainly, with difficulty, with effort, with case 6) by means of We express our thoughts by means of works 7) by virtue of Though she isn’t British by birth, she’s a British citizen by virtue of her marriage to an English man. IV. Giới từ chỉ mục đích: 1) for I am going to apply for a job 2) to Com to sb’s rescue, drink to sb’s health 3) for fear of She left an hour early for fear of missing her train. I never carry a large sum of money with me for fear of losing it 4) for the purpose of Did you come to London for the purpose of seeing your family or for business purpose? 5) for the sake of He’s going to live by the coast for the sake of his health 6) with a view to Dung beetles were initially introduced in the late 1960s with a view to controlling buffalo flies. V. Giới từ chỉ nguyên nhân 1) by By mistake, by good luck 2) for For lack of food, for want of money He was rewarded for his bravery 3) from Die from hunger, tremble from fear Every year some 10,000 people die from pesticide poisoning. 4) given Given the cheap cost of labor, people would much rather pay someone to repair their homes. I very much hope that, given the circumstances, you would be prepared to allow me to take up my position with you two weeks later than planned. 5) of Die of cancer She did it of her own free will. 6) through Through neglect, through bad organization 7) with Tremble with fear, mad with joy 8) because of Our society will develop more slowly than it should because of traditional preconceptions. Because of these types of violence, it cannot be said that international sporting events are entirely effective in easing international tensions and releasing patriotic emotions in a safe way. 9) due to Joe’s application to the University was not accepted due to his failing English. 10) owing to Owing to a prior engagement, the chairman cannot come tonight. 11) thanks to Thanks to technological advances such as lightweight components, manufactured good themselves have tended to become lighter and less bulky. It was also at this time that the avant-garde film first achieved commercial success, this time thanks almost exclusively to the French and the occasional German film. 12) in view of In view of the expense, in view of the fact In view of his youth, the police have decided not to press charges. 13) on account of On account of the weather, we had to cancel the projected outing 14) as a result of World food output per head has risen by 4 percent between the 1970s and 1980s mainly as a result of increases in yields from land already in cultivation. VI. Giới từ chỉ quan hệ loại trừ: 1) bar (barring) All was over, bar the formal recording of the votes. 2) beyond Beyond the practical need to make order out of chaos, the rise of dictionaries is associated with the rise of the English middle class. They certainly won’t know anything of the world beyond the school work that they are given by teachers. 3) but All but on of the blind subjects assigned distinctive motions to each wheel. 4) except (except for) Your composition is good except for a few spelling mistakes. 5) save (saving, save for) She answered all the questions save one. 6)apart from I can’t think of anything I need, apart from a car. 7) aside from Aside from the Joneses, I don’t know anybody in the village. 8) other than It is important to remember that children need to develop skills other than intellectual ones. Scientists are now finding genes that influence things other than how a person looks. 9) short of Short of the President himself, probably no one could have put the American case more persuasively. 10) with the exception of I like all my studies with the exception of arithmetic. (be continued)
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Người đăng: Richard Nguyen, lúc 18:21 19/11/2016.

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