Những giới từ thường gặp trong kỳ thi IELTS dưới đây được phân loại dựa trên ý nghĩa cùng với ví dụ điển hình.
I. Giới từ chỉ thời gian:1. afterafter school, after college
After many vicissitudes, the Dictionary was finally published on 15 April, 1775.
2. atat night, at noon
at sunrise, at the beginning of the 20th century
3. beforebefore Christmas, before the First World War
4. byby the beginning of the century
5. duringduring the same period, during the summer holidays
6. inin the morning, in recent years, in the winter
In accepting this view he was admitting the possibility that he was mistaken earlier.
7. nearnear death, near the end of the exam
8. onon a sunday afternoon, on the first day of the term
on friday night, on the weekends
on a hot sunny day, on Christmas Eve
on arrival, on demand
on receipt, on sight
9. outsideoutside office hours
10. overover night, over time
over the years, over the long term
fall asleep over a book, discuss a matter over dinner
11. pastpast bedtime, past three o'clock
Children in developing countries are healthier and more likely to survive past the age of five when their mothers can read and write.
12. pendingPending our move to the new house, we moved to temporary accommodation in London.
13. sinceSince leaving home, since then
14. throughoutThroughout the day, throughout one’s life
15. toward(s)Toward sundown, toward sixty years of age
16. underUnder consideration, under construction
Under discussion, under way
17. until (till)Until last week
Original science was not done in English until the second half of the 17th century.
They did not disappear from the bigger rivers till present times.
18. prior toPrior to carrying out the experiment, Milgram explained his idea to a group of 39 psychiatrists.
19. at the end ofAt the end of the discussion, at the end of the exam
20. at the point ofAt the point of leaving, at the point of collapse
21. in the act of
I caught him in the act of reading my private letters.
22. in the course of
I hope that in the course of the next two or three weeks they’ll make up their minds.
23. in the midst of = the period of time when something is happening or being done
In the midst of this humiliating scandal, news of Mr. Hodge’s resignation arrived.
24. in the wake of : used to say what happens after and often as a result of something
Many expressionist movements sprang up in the wake of the Second World War.
25. on the eve of = the period of time just before an important event.
On the eve of an examination
On the eve of a tremendous theoretical and cultural development
The students were nervous on the eve of their graduation.
II. Giới từ chỉ địa điểm, phương hướng:
Escape across borders, wander across the park.
Live across the street, speak from across the room.
Drive along a path, walk along a corridor
Amid the ruins, amidst dangers
A house among the trees
A small village among the mountains
A river beside the house, beside the road
A passageway between two rooms, insert between the lines
Linger by the door, sit by the bed
Climb down a tree, go down the hill
Walk down the street, swim down the river
Fall into a ditch, pour hot water into a glass
Inside the mouth, step inside the gate
A building near the railway, stand near the door
A lamp on the desk, a picture on the wall
On the campus, on the world market
On the outskirts of the city
Live opposite the park, sit opposite each other
Go outside the house
Throughout Europe, throughout the country
A tendency toward cooperation, head toward the bus stop
Sit down underneath the tree
Write the date underneath the address
Climb up the stairs, run up the steps
Within the reach, within a party
Within sight, within hearing
20) ahead of
One man went ahead of the others to see if the road was clear.
21) next to
Take a piece of chalk out of the box
Walk out of the room
23) in front of
A van was parked right in front of my car
24) in the face of
In the face of great hardship, she managed to keep her sense of humor
III. Giới từ chỉ cách thức, phương pháp
She earns her living by selling insurance
On foot, on the radio, on TV, on the telephone
Peace through strength
The transmission of television via satellite
Interlibrary loans are available locally and nationally via the British Library.
With certainly, with difficulty, with effort, with case
6) by means of
We express our thoughts by means of works
7) by virtue of
Though she isn’t British by birth, she’s a British citizen by virtue of her marriage to an English man.
IV. Giới từ chỉ mục đích:1) for
I am going to apply for a job
Com to sb’s rescue, drink to sb’s health
3) for fear of
She left an hour early for fear of missing her train.
I never carry a large sum of money with me for fear of losing it
4) for the purpose of
Did you come to London for the purpose of seeing your family or for business purpose?
5) for the sake of
He’s going to live by the coast for the sake of his health
6) with a view to
Dung beetles were initially introduced in the late 1960s with a view to controlling buffalo flies.
V. Giới từ chỉ nguyên nhân1) by
By mistake, by good luck
For lack of food, for want of money
He was rewarded for his bravery
Die from hunger, tremble from fear
Every year some 10,000 people die from pesticide poisoning.
Given the cheap cost of labor, people would much rather pay someone to repair their homes.
I very much hope that, given the circumstances, you would be prepared to allow me to take up my position with you two weeks later than planned.
Die of cancer
She did it of her own free will.
Through neglect, through bad organization
Tremble with fear, mad with joy
8) because of
Our society will develop more slowly than it should because of traditional preconceptions.
Because of these types of violence, it cannot be said that international sporting events are entirely effective in easing international tensions and releasing patriotic emotions in a safe way.
9) due to
Joe’s application to the University was not accepted due to his failing English.
10) owing to
Owing to a prior engagement, the chairman cannot come tonight.
11) thanks to
Thanks to technological advances such as lightweight components, manufactured good themselves have tended to become lighter and less bulky.
It was also at this time that the avant-garde film first achieved commercial success, this time thanks almost exclusively to the French and the occasional German film.
12) in view of
In view of the expense, in view of the fact
In view of his youth, the police have decided not to press charges.
13) on account of
On account of the weather, we had to cancel the projected outing
14) as a result of
World food output per head has risen by 4 percent between the 1970s and 1980s mainly as a result of increases in yields from land already in cultivation.
VI. Giới từ chỉ quan hệ loại trừ:1) bar (barring)
All was over, bar the formal recording of the votes.
Beyond the practical need to make order out of chaos, the rise of dictionaries is associated with the rise of the English middle class.
They certainly won’t know anything of the world beyond the school work that they are given by teachers.
All but on of the blind subjects assigned distinctive motions to each wheel.
4) except (except for)
Your composition is good except for a few spelling mistakes.
5) save (saving, save for)
She answered all the questions save one.
I can’t think of anything I need, apart from a car.
7) aside from
Aside from the Joneses, I don’t know anybody in the village.
8) other than
It is important to remember that children need to develop skills other than intellectual ones.
Scientists are now finding genes that influence things other than how a person looks.
9) short of
Short of the President himself, probably no one could have put the American case more persuasively.
10) with the exception of
I like all my studies with the exception of arithmetic.
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